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[资料] Mixed-Signal 测试的书

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一本介绍Mixed-Signal 测试的书,挺不错的


An Introduction to Mixed-Signal IC Test and Measurement


Chapter 1 Overview of Mixed-Signal Testing 1
1.1 Mixed-Signal Circuits 1
1.1.1 analog, Digital, or Mixed-Signal? 1
1.1.2 Common Types of Analog and Mixed-Signal Circuits 2
1.1.3 Applications of Mixed-Signal Circuits 3
1.2 Why Test Mixed-Signal Devices? 5
1.2.1 The CMOS Fabrication Process 5
1.2.2 Real-World Circuits 6
1.2.3 What Is a Test Engineer? 8
1.3 Post-Silicon Production Flow 9
1.3.1 Test and Packaging 9
1.3.2 Characterization Versus Production Testing 10
1.4 Test and Diagnostic Equipment 11
1.4.1 Automated Test Equipment 11
1.4.2 Wafer Probers 12
1.4.3 Handlers 12
1.4.4 E-Beam Probers 13
1.4.5 Focused Ion Beam Equipment 13
1.4.6 Forced-Temperature Systems 13
1.5 New Product Development 14
1.5.1 Concurrent Engineering 14
1.6 Mixed-Signal Testing Challenges 15
1.6.1 Time to Market 15
1.6.2 Accuracy, Repeatability, and Correlation 15
1.6.3 Electromechanical Fixturing Challenges 16
1.6.4 Economics of Production Testing 16
Problems 17
References 18
CONTENTS
vvi CONTENTS
Chapter 2 Tester Hardware 19
2.1 Mixed-Signal Tester Overview 19
2.1.1 General-Purpose Testers Versus Focused Bench Equipment 19
2.1.2 Generic Tester Architecture 20
2.2 DC Resources 20
2.2.1 General-Purpose Multimeters 20
2.2.2 General-Purpose Voltage/Current Sources 22
2.2.3 Precision Voltage References and User Supplies 23
2.2.4 Calibration Source 24
2.2.5 Relay Matrices 24
2.2.6 Relay Control Lines 25
2.3 Digital Subsystem 26
2.3.1 Digital Vectors 26
2.3.2 Digital Signals 26
2.3.3 Source Memory 26
2.3.4 Capture Memory 27
2.3.5 Pin Card Electronics 27
2.3.6 Timing and Formatting Electronics 28
2.4 AC Source and Measurement 31
2.4.1 AC Continuous-Wave Source and AC Meter 31
2.4.2 Arbitrary Waveform Generators 31
2.4.3 Waveform Digitizers 32
2.4.4 Clocking and Synchronization 32
2.5 Time Measurement System 34
2.5.1 Time Measurements 34
2.5.2 Time Measurement Interconnects 34
2.6 RF Subsystem 34
2.6.1 Source Path 34
2.6.2 Measurement Path 35
2.7 Computing Hardware 36
2.7.1 User Computer 36
2.7.2 Tester Computer 36
2.7.3 Array Processors and Distributed Digital Signal Processors 37
2.7.4 Network Connectivity 37
2.8 Summary 37
Problems 37
Chapter 3 DC and Parametric Measurements 39
3.1 Continuity 39
3.1.1 Purpose of Continuity Testing 39
3.1.2 Continuity Test Technique 40
3.1.3 Serial Versus Parallel Continuity Testing 42Contents vii
3.2 Leakage Currents 43
3.2.1 Purpose of Leakage Testing 43
3.2.2 Leakage Test Technique 44
3.2.3 Serial Versus Parallel Leakage Testing 44
3.3 Power Supply Currents 44
3.3.1 Importance of Supply Current Tests 44
3.3.2 Test Techniques 45
3.4 DC References and Regulators 46
3.4.1 Voltage Regulators 46
3.4.2 Voltage References 47
3.4.3 Trimmable References 47
3.5 Impedance Measurements 48
3.5.1 Input Impedance 48
3.5.2 Output Impedance 51
3.5.3 Differential Impedance Measurements 51
3.6 DC Offset Measurements 52
3.6.1 VMID and Analog Ground 52
3.6.2 DC Transfer Characteristics (GAIn and Offset) 53
3.6.3 Output Offset Voltage (VO,OS) 53
3.6.4 Single-Ended, Differential, and Common-Mode Offsets 54
3.6.5 Input Offset Voltage (VIN,OS) 56
3.7 DC Gain Measurements 57
3.7.1 Closed-Loop Gain 57
3.7.2 Open-Loop Gain 59
3.8 DC Power Supply Rejection Ratio 62
3.8.1 DC Power Supply Sensitivity 62
3.8.2 DC Power Supply Rejection Ratio 63
3.9 DC Common-Mode Rejection Ratio 64
3.9.1 CMRR of Op Amps 64
3.9.2 CMRR of Differential Gain Stages 66
3.10 Comparator DC Tests 68
3.10.1 Input Offset Voltage 68
3.10.2 Threshold Voltage 68
3.10.3 Hysteresis 69
3.11 Voltage Search Techniques 70
3.11.1 Binary Searches Versus Step Searches 70
3.11.2 Linear Searches 71
3.12 DC Tests for Digital Circuits 75
3.12.1 IIH /IIL 75
3.12.2 VIH /VIL 75
3.12.3 VOH /VOL 75
3.12.4 IOH /IOL 75
3.12.5 IOSH and IOSL Short-Circuit Current 75viii CONTENTS
3.13 Summary 76
Problems 76
References 78
Chapter 4 Data Analysis and Probability Theory 79
4.1 Data Visualization Tools 79
4.1.1 Datalogs (Data Lists) 79
4.1.2 Lot Summaries 80
4.1.3 Wafer Maps 82
4.1.4 Shmoo Plots 83
4.1.5 Histograms 85
4.2 Statistical Analysis 86
4.2.1 Mean (Average) and Standard Deviation (Variance) 86
4.2.2 Probabilities and Probability Density Functions 88
4.2.3 The Standard Gaussian Cumulative Distribution Function Φ(z) 91
4.2.4 Verifying Gaussian Behavior: The Kurtosis and
Normal Probability Plot 96
4.3 Non-Gaussian Distributions Found in Mixed-Signal Test 99
4.3.1 The Uniform Probability Distribution 99
4.3.2 The Sinusoidal Probability Distribution 101
4.3.3 The Binomial Probability Distribution 104
4.4 Modeling the Structure of Randomness 106
4.4.1 Modeling a Gaussian Mixture Using the
Expectation-Maximization Algorithm 107
4.4.2 Probabilities Associated with a Gaussian Mixture Model 113
4.5 Sums and Differences of Random Variables 116
4.5.1 The Central Limit Theorem 120
4.6 Summary 122
Problems 122
References 126
Chapter 5 Yield, Measurement Accuracy, and Test Time 127
5.1 Yield 127
5.2 Measurement Terminology 129
5.2.1 Accuracy and Precision 129
5.2.2 Systematic or Bias Errors 130
5.2.3 Random Errors 130
5.2.4 Resolution (Quantization Error) 131
5.2.5 Repeatability 132
5.2.6 Stability 132
5.2.7 Correlation 132
5.2.8 Reproducibility 134Contents ix
5.3 A Mathematical Look at Repeatability, Bias, and Accuracy 134
5.4 Calibrations and Checkers 142
5.4.1 Traceability to Standards 142
5.4.2 Hardware Calibration 142
5.4.3 Software Calibration 143
5.4.4 System Calibrations and Checkers 145
5.4.5 Focused Instrument Calibrations 146
5.4.6 Focused DIB Circuit Calibrations 149
5.5 Tester Specififi cations 151
5.6 Reducing Measurement Error with Greater Measurement Time 153
5.6.1 Analog Filtering 153
5.6.2 Averaging 155
5.7 Guardbands 156
5.8 Effects of Measurement Variability on Test Yield 161
5.9 Effects of Reproducibilty and Process Variation on Yield 164
5.10 Statistical Process Control 167
5.10.1 Goals of SPC 167
5.10.2 Six-Sigma Quality 168
5.10.3 Process Capability: Cp, and Cpk 169
5.10.4 Gauge Repeatability and Reproducibility 170
5.11 Summary 171
Problems 172
References 175
Chapter 6 DAC Testing 176
6.1 Basics of Data Converters 177
6.1.1 Principles of DAC and ADC Conversion 177
6.1.2 Data Formats 181
6.1.3 Comparison of DACs and ADCs 185
6.1.4 DAC Failure Mechanisms 185
6.2 Basic DC Tests 186
6.2.1 Code-Specififi c Parameters 186
6.2.2 Full-Scale Range 186
6.2.3 DC Gain, Gain Error, Offset, and Offset Error 186
6.2.4 LSB Step Size 189
6.2.5 DC PSS 189
6.3 Transfer Curve Tests 190
6.3.1 Absolute Error 190
6.3.2 Monotonicity 191
6.3.3 Differential Nonlinearity 192
6.3.4 Integral Nonlinearity 194
6.3.5 Partial Transfer Curves 197x CONTENTS
6.3.6 Major Carrier Testing 197
6.3.7 Other Selected-Code Techniques 200
6.4 Dynamic DAC Tests 201
6.4.1 Conversion Time (Settling Time) 201
6.4.2 Overshoot and Undershoot 202
6.4.3 Rise Time and Fall Time 203
6.4.4 DAC-to-DAC Skew 203
6.4.5 Glitch Energy (Glitch Impulse) 203
6.4.6 Clock and Data Feedthrough 204
6.5 Tests for Common DAC Applications 205
6.5.1 DC References 205
6.5.2 Audio Reconstruction 205
6.5.3 Data Modulation 206
6.5.4 Video Signal Generators 206
6.6 Summary 207
Problems 207
References 210
Chapter 7 ADC Testing 211
7.1 ADC Testing Versus DAC Testing 211
7.1.1 Comparison of DACs and ADCs 211
7.1.2 Statistical Behavior of ADCs 211
7.2 ADC Code Edge Measurements 216
7.2.1 Edge Code Testing Versus Center Code Testing 216
7.2.2 Step Search and Binary Search Methods 217
7.2.3 Servo Method 217
7.2.4 Linear Ramp Histogram Method 218
7.2.5 Conversion from Histograms to Code Edge Transfer Curves 220
7.2.6 Accuracy Limitations of Histogram Testing 221
7.2.7 Rising Ramps Versus Falling Ramps 223
7.2.8 Sinusoidal Histogram Method 224
7.3 DC Tests and Transfer Curve Tests 233
7.3.1 DC Gain and Offset 233
7.3.2 INL and DNL 234
7.3.3 Monotonicity and Missing Codes 236
7.4 Dynamic ADC Tests 238
7.4.1 Conversion Time, Recovery Time, and
Sampling Frequency 238
7.4.2 Aperture Jitter 240
7.4.3 Sparkling 240
7.5 Tests for Common ADC Applications 241
7.5.1 DC Measurements 241Contents xi
7.5.2 Audio Digitization 241
7.5.3 Data Transmission 241
7.5.4 Video Digitization 242
7.6 Summary 242
Problems 242
References 244
Chapter 8 Sampling Theory 246
8.1 Analog Measurements Using dsp 246
8.1.1 Traditional Versus DSP-Based Testing of AC Parameters 246
8.2 Sampling and Reconstruction 247
8.2.1 Use of Sampling and Reconstruction in Mixed-Signal Testing 247
8.2.2 Sampling: Continuous-Time and Discrete-Time Representation 247
8.2.3 Reconstruction 251
8.2.4 The Sampling Theorem and Aliasing 255
8.2.5 Quantization Effects 258
8.2.6 Sampling Jitter 264
8.3 Repetitive Sample Sets 271
8.3.1 Finite and Infifi nite Sample Sets 271
8.3.2 Coherent Signals and Noncoherent Signals 272
8.3.3 Peak-to-RMS Control in Coherent Multitones 274
8.3.4 Spectral Bin Selection 275
8.4 Synchronization of Sampling Systems 280
8.4.1 Simultaneous Testing of Multiple Sampling Systems 280
8.4.2 ATE Clock Sources 281
8.5 Summary 283
Problems 283
References 285
Chapter 9 DSP-Based Testing 286
9.1 Advantages of DSP-Based Testing 286
9.1.1 Reduced Test Time 286
9.1.2 Separation of Signal Components 287
9.1.3 Advanced Signal Manipulations 287
9.2 Digital Signal Processing 287
9.2.1 DSP and Array Processing 287
9.2.2 Fourier Analysis of Periodic Signals 288
9.2.3 The Trigonometric Fourier Series 289
9.2.4 The Discrete-Time Fourier Series 292
9.2.5 Complete Frequency Spectrum 302
9.2.6 Time and Frequency Denormalization 305
9.2.7 Complex Form of the DTFS 306xii CONTENTS
9.3 Discrete-Time Transforms 308
9.3.1 The Discrete Fourier Transform 308
9.3.2 The Fast Fourier Transform 312
9.3.3 Interpreting the FFT Output 313
9.3.4 Windowing 321
9.4 The Inverse FFT 333
9.4.1 Equivalence of Time- and Frequency-Domain Information 333
9.4.2 Parseval’s Theorem 336
9.4.3 Frequency-Domain Filtering 337
9.4.4 Noise Weighting 338
9.5 Summary 339
Problems 340
References 344
Chapter 10 Analog Channel Testing 345
10.1 Overview 345
10.1.1 Types of Analog Channels 345
10.1.2 Types of AC Parametric Tests 346
10.2 Gain and Level Tests 346
10.2.1 Absolute Voltage Levels 346
10.2.2 Absolute Gain and Gain Error 350
10.2.3 Gain Tracking Error 352
10.2.4 PGA Gain Tests 352
10.2.5 Frequency Response 357
10.3 Phase Tests 365
10.3.1 Phase Response 365
10.3.2 Group Delay and Group Delay Distortion 369
10.4 Distortion Tests 371
10.4.1 Signal-to-Harmonic Distortion 371
10.4.2 Intermodulation Distortion 374
10.4.3 Adjacent Channel and Noise Power Ratio Tests 375
10.5 Signal Rejection Tests 377
10.5.1 Common-Mode Rejection Ratio 377
10.5.2 Power Supply Rejection and Power Supply Rejection Ratio 379
10.5.3 Channel-to-Channel Crosstalk 381
10.5.4 Clock and Data Feedthrough 384
10.6 Noise Tests 385
10.6.1 Noise 385
10.6.2 Idle Channel Noise 385
10.6.3 Signal to Noise, Signal to Noise and Distortion 387
10.6.4 Spurious Free Dynamic Range 390
10.7 Summary 390
Problems 391Contents xiii
Chapter 11 Sampled Channel Testing 395
11.1 Overview 395
11.1.1 What Are Sampled Channels? 395
11.1.2 Examples of Sampled Channels 396
11.1.3 Types of Sampled Channels 398
11.2 Sampling Considerations 400
11.2.1 DUT Sampling Rate Constraints 400
11.2.2 Digital Signal Source and Capture 401
11.2.3 Simultaneous DAC and ADC Channel Testing 405
11.2.4 Mismatched Fundamental Frequencies 408
11.2.5 Reconstruction Effects in DACs, AWGs, and
Other Sampled-Data Circuits 412
11.3 Undersampling and Aliasing 416
11.3.1 Reconstructing the High-Frequency Signal from
the Aliased Sample Set 418
11.4 Encoding and Decoding 424
11.4.1 Signal Creation and Analysis 424
11.4.2 Intrinsic (Quantization) Errors Associated
with the DAC Operation 425
11.5 Sampled Channel Tests 428
11.5.1 Similarity to Analog Channel Tests 428
11.5.2 Absolute Level, Absolute Gain, Gain Error, and Gain Tracking 430
11.5.3 Frequency Response 434
11.5.4 Phase Response (Absolute Phase Shift) 437
11.5.5 Group Delay and Group Delay Distortion 438
11.5.6 Signal to Harmonic Distortion and Intermodulation Distortion 438
11.5.7 Crosstalk 439
11.5.8 CMRR 440
11.5.9 PSR and PSRR 440
11.5.10 Signal-to-Noise Ratio and ENOB 440
11.5.11 Idle Channel Noise 441
11.6 Summary 442
Problems 442
References 445
Chapter 12 Fundamentals Of RF Testing 446
12.1 Introduction to RF Testing 446
12.2 Scalar Versus Vector Measures 448
12.2.1 Wave Defifi nition of Electrical Signals 448
12.2.1 Measures of Electrical Waves 449
12.2.2 Power Defifi nition 452
12.2.3 Crest Factor 456
12.2.4 Power in dBm 459xiv CONTENTS
12.2.5 Power Transfer 460
12.2.6 Conjugate and Reflfl ectionless Matching 464
12.2.7 Power Loss Metrics 465
12.3 Noise 467
12.3.1 Amplitude Noise 469
12.3.2 Noise Figure 471
12.3.3 Phase Noise 474
12.4 S-Parameters 481
12.4.1 Principles of S-Parameters of a Two-Port Network 481
12.4.2 Scalar Representation of S-Parameters 486
12.5 Modulation 504
12.5.1 Analog Modulation 504
12.5.2 Digital Modulation 511
12.5.3 Quadrature Amplitude Modulation 514
12.5.4 Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing 514
12.6 Summary 516
Problems 517
References 519
Chapter 13 RF Test Methods 521
13.1 Scalar Measurement Methods 522
13.1.1 Principles of a Scalar Power Measurement 522
13.1.2 Gain Measurement 528
13.1.3 Scalar Power Measures Versus Time 536
13.1.4 Intermodulation Measurement 538
13.1.5 Compression Point Measurement 543
13.2 S-Parameter Measurements 548
13.2.1 Principles of a Directional Coupler 548
13.2.2 Directional Couplers on an ATE 550
13.3 Noise Figure and Noise Factor 551
13.3.1 Noise Figure and Noise Factor Defifi nition 551
13.3.2 Noise Measurement Technique with the Y-Factor Method 553
13.3.3 Noise Measurement Technique with the Cold Noise Method 555
13.3.4 Comparison of the Noise Figure Test Methods 555
13.4 Phase Noise 557
13.4.1 Measuring Phase Noise Using Spectral Analysis 558
13.4.2 PLL-Based Phase Noise Test Method 563
13.4.3 Delay-Line Phase Noise Test Method 565
13.5 Vector Signal Analysis 566
13.5.1 In-Phase and Quadrature Signal Representation 568
13.5.2 Test of Relative Phase 568
13.5.3 Error Vector Magnitude Test Method 573Contents xv
13.5.4 Adjacent Channel Power Tests 575
13.5.5 Transmit Mask 578
13.5.6 Bit Error Rate 578
13.6 Summary 580
Problems 581
References 584
Chapter 14 Clock and Serial Data Communications Channel
Measurements 585
14.1 Synchronous and Asynchronous Communications 585
14.2 Time-Domain Attributes of a Clock Signal 587
14.3 Frequency-Domain Attributes of a Clock Signal 592
14.4 Communicating Serially Over a Channel 598
14.4.1 Ideal Channel 599
14.4.2 Real Channel Effects 600
14.4.3 Impact of Decision Levels on Receiver Performance 606
14.5 Bit Error Rate Measurement 611
14.5.1 PRBS Test Patterns 617
14.6 Methods to Speed Up BER Tests in Production 621
14.6.1 Amplitude-Based Scan Test 621
14.6.2 Time-Based Scan Test 628
14.6.3 Dual-Dirac Jitter Decomposition Method 630
14.6.4 Gaussian Mixture Jitter Decomposition Method 638
14.7 Deterministic Jitter Decomposition 644
14.7.1 Period and Sinusoidal Jitter (PJ/SJ) 644
14.7.2 Data-Dependent Jitter (DDJ) 647
14.7.3 Bounded and Uncorrelated Jitter (BUJ) 649
14.8 Jitter Transmission Tests 655
14.8.1 Jitter Transfer Test 655
14.8.2 Jitter Tolerance Test 666
14.9 Summary 673
Problems 674
References 680
Chapter 15 Tester Interfacing—DIB Design 681
15.1 DIB Basics 681
15.1.1 Purpose of a Device Interface Board 681
15.1.2 DIB Confifi gurations 683
15.1.3 Importance of Good DIB Design 684
15.2 Printed Circuit Boards 684
15.2.1 Prototype DIBs Versus PCB DIBs 684xvi CONTENTS
15.2.2 PCB CAD Tools 685
15.2.3 Multilayer PCBs 686
15.2.4 PCB Materials 687
15.3 DIB Traces, Shields, and Guards 688
15.3.1 Trace Parasitics 688
15.3.2 Trace Resistance 688
15.3.3 Trace Inductance 689
15.3.4 Trace Capacitance 694
15.3.5 Shielding 700
15.3.6 Driven Guards 701
15.4 Transmission Lines 702
15.4.1 Various TEM Transmission Line Confifi gurations 702
15.4.2 Tranmission Line Discontinuities 705
15.4.3 Lumped- and Distributed-Element Models 706
15.4.4 Transmission Line Termination 710
15.4.5 Parasitic Lumped Elements 714
15.5 Impedance Matching Techniques for RF DIB 715
15.5.1 Introduction to the Smith Chart 715
15.5.2 Impedance Smith Chart 717
15.5.3 Admittance Smith Chart 720
15.5.4 Immitance Smith Chart 721
15.5.5 Impedance Transformation with Discrete Components
on Smith Chart 722
15.5.6 Impedance Matching with a Series and Shunt
Component Using the Immitance Smith Chart 725
15.6 Grounding and Power Distribution 728
15.6.1 Grounding 728
15.6.2 Power Distribution 729
15.6.3 Power and Ground Planes 730
15.6.4 Ground Loops 732
15.7 DIB Components 733
15.7.1 DUT Sockets and Contactor Assemblies 733
15.7.2 Contact Pads, Pogo Pins, and Socket Pins 734
15.7.3 Electromechanical Relays 736
15.7.4 Socket Pins 738
15.7.5 Resistors 739
15.7.6 Capacitors 741
15.7.7 Inductors and Ferrite Beads 745
15.7.8 Transformers and Power Splitters 748
15.8 Common DIB Circuits 749
15.8.1 Analog Buffers (Voltage Followers) 749
15.8.2 Instrumentation Amplififi ers 749
15.8.3 VMID Reference Adder 751Contents xvii
15.8.4 Current-to-Voltage and Voltage-to-Current Conversions 752
15.8.5 Power Supply Ripple Circuits 753
15.9 Common DIB Mistakes 755
15.9.1 Poor Power Supply and Ground layout 755
15.9.2 Crosstalk 755
15.9.3 Transmission Line Discontinuities 756
15.9.4 Resistive Drops in Circuit Traces 756
15.9.5 Tester Instrument Parasitics 757
15.9.6 Oscillations in Active Circuits 757
15.9.7 Poor DIB Component Placement and PCB Layout 757
15.10 Summary 758
Problems 758
References 760
Chapter 16 Design for Test (DFT) 761
16.1 Overview 761
16.1.1 What Is DfT? 761
16.1.2 Built-In Self-Test 762
16.1.3 Differences Between Digital DfT and Analog DfT 762
16.1.4 Why Should We Use DfT? 763
16.2 Advantages of DfT 763
16.2.1 Lower Cost of Test 763
16.2.2 Increased Fault Coverage and Improved Process Control 765
16.2.3 Diagnostics and Characterization 765
16.2.4 System-Level Diagnostics 766
16.3 Digital Scan 766
16.3.1 Scan Basics 766
16.3.2 IEEE Std. 1149.1 Standard Test Access Port and
Boundary Scan 767
16.3.3 Full Scan and Partial Scan 770
16.4 Digital BIST 771
16.4.1 Pseudorandom BILBO Circuits 771
16.4.2 Memory BIST 773
16.4.3 Microcode BIST 774
16.5 Digital DfT for Mixed-Signal Circuits 774
16.5.1 Partitioning 774
16.5.2 Digital Resets and Presets 775
16.5.3 Device-Driven Timing 776
16.5.4 Lengthy Preamble 778
16.6 Mixed-Signal Boundary Scan and BIST 778
16.6.1 Mixed-Signal Boundary Scan (IEEE Std. 1149.4) 778
16.6.2 Analog and Mixed-Signal BIST 780xviii CONTENTS
16.7 AD HOC Mixed-Signal DfT 781
16.7.1 Common Concepts 781
16.7.2 Accessibility of Analog Signals 782
16.7.3 Analog Test Buses, T-Switches, and Bypass Modes 783
16.7.4 Separation of Analog and Digital Blocks 785
16.7.5 Loopback Modes 788
16.7.6 Precharging Circuits and AC Coupling Shorts 788
16.7.7 On-Chip Sampling Circuits 790
16.7.8 PLL Testability Circuits 790
16.7.9 DAC and ADC Converters 791
16.8 RF DfT 792
16.8.1 RF Loopback Test 792
16.8.2 RF BIT and BIST 793
16.8.3 Correlation-Based Test 795
16.9 Summary 798
Problems 798
References 800
Appendix A Gaussian Cumulative Distribution Function Values Φ(z) 803
Appendix B Some Inverse Values of the Gaussian CDF Function Φ(z) 804
Answers to Problems 805
Index


An Introduction to Mixed-Signal IC Test and Measurement, 2nd edition.pdf (7.66 MB, 下载次数: 87 )





2#天天乐棋牌
发表于 2019-11-14 14:15:36 | 只看该作者
Good.
3#
发表于 2019-11-14 21:36:55 | 只看该作者
thanks
4#
发表于 2019-11-14 22:24:20 | 只看该作者
thanks
5#
发表于 2019-11-14 23:28:12 | 只看该作者
thanks
6#
发表于 2019-11-15 14:44:26 | 只看该作者
Nice, 2012 Second Edition
7#
发表于 2019-11-15 15:09:09 | 只看该作者
是2012年德州仪器TI书的器
8#
发表于 2019-11-15 15:11:30 | 只看该作者
多谢分享,赞赞赞
9#
发表于 2019-11-16 23:04:24 | 只看该作者
多谢分享
10#
发表于 2019-11-19 23:39:12 | 只看该作者
thanks a lot
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